Keep fighting for Dean Award, Amin

Jumaat, 23 Jun 2017

Slide SILAT OLAHRAGA in Biomechanic

This slide will share to DR. Nizam

Start everyday with a new hope, leave bad memories behind and always have faith for a better tomorrow.


1. Journal individual assignment

This will Share to DR Nizam


(SPS 492)


(Date of submission: 16/5/2017)

STUDENT ID: 2016690936



Main Content
2.1  Journal Content
2.2  Issues
2.3 Discussion
2.4 Personal opinion


The author of this journal, Effect of Physical Education and Activity Levels on Academic Achievement in Children is Dawn Podulka Coe, James M. Pivarnik, Christopher J. Womack, Mathew J. Reeves, and Robert M. Malina. This journal published on 31 March 2014 at

This study was conducted to determine the effect of physical education class enrollment and physical activity on academic achievement in middle school children. Participants were 214 sixth-grade students randormly assigned to physical education during either first or second semesters. Moderate and vigorous physical activity (MPVA) (number of 30-min time block) outside of school was assessed using the 3-d physical activity recall (3DPAR). The 3DPAR times blocks were converted to ordinal data with scores of 1 (no acticvity), 2 (some activity) or 3 (activity meeting Healthy People 2010 guidelines). Academic achievement was assessed using grades from four core academic classes and standardized test scores (Terra Nova percentiles). Grades were similar regardless of whether students were enrolled in physical education during first or second semesters. Physical education classes averaged only 19 min of MVPA. Students who either performed some or met Healthy People 2010 guidelines for vigorous activity had significantly higher grades (P < 0.05) than students who performed no vigorous activity in both semesters. Moderate physical activity did not affect grades. Standardized test scores were not significantly related to physical education class enrollment or physical activity levels.

This study was conducted to determine the effect of physical education class enrollment and physical activity on academic achievement in middle school children.

Increase physical activity during the school day may induce arousal and reduce boredam, which can lead to increased attention span and concentration. Moreover, increased actvity level might be related to increased self-esteem, which would improve classrom behavior as well as performance. The vigorous activity levels may meet the threshold of physical activity intensity necessary to positively influence academic performance. Then, increased the academic achievement was influenced by the increased time spent in physical education class. Sport participation provide adequate intensity level to meet the threshold necessary to see desirable effect of physical activity on fitness and academic achievement.

In my opinion, Im agree with this journal. This is because physical education and activity levels on academic achievement give a good effects to children.

That students enrolled in physical education would have better academic achievement than those not enrolled in physical education because of increased levels of physical activity gained during class time. Then the students who achieved Healthy People 2010 guidelines for physical activity would have the highest academic achievement. Physical education class enrollment status did not influence academic achievement in core classes.

(i)                 Effect of Physical Education and Activity Levels on Academic Achievement in Children, ResearchGate,

2. Grouping Assignment

This will Share to Dr Nizam


(SPS 492)

(Date of submission: 13/6/2017)

Muhamad Fitri Bin Hassim
Fadlin Taban Anak Pilu
Nur Rasyiqah Binti Mokhtar
Nor Suhaida Binti Mustafa
Nurul Nabilah Rauqah Binti Rosli



Main Content
2.1  Nature of The Game
2.2  Key Motor Skill Performance
2.3 Roles of Biomechanics in Sport Performance
2.4 Roles of Sport Pedagogy in Sport Performance



          Kinesiology is the scientific study of human movement performance to maintain or improve physical fitness. To identify the physiological, mechanical and psychological variables needed in human movement. In kinesiology also were apply the principles of kinesiology as a professional in the field of coaching, athlete training or any other profession by analyse human movement and making appropriate recommendations.
            The science components of exercise science within which the body of knowledge is describes, studies and expanded. In the report, its include the nature of the sport, motor skill in sport, roles biomechanics in sport performance and roles sport pedagogy in sport performance. Sport that we choose is netball and its will describe about motor skill that have in netball.
           There are five motor skill that involve in netball such as open skill, external passed skill, and gross skill, interactive and discrete skill. Kinesiology were important to improve performance, safe movements, use movements for       therapy, helps to evaluate exercise and efficiency.


2.1  Nature of The Game
           Netball is a team sport which is the game is fast, exciting and involving the movement of running, jumping, throwing and also capture. Netball same with basketball even though there is a difference in law, equipment and team number. In netball there are movements dribbling, unable to walk while holding the ball. In this sport got seven players. There is a centre (C), a goal keeper (GK), a goal defend (GD), a wind defend (WD), a wing attack (WA), a goal attack (GA), one is goal shooter (GS). In netball, players are not allowed to hold the ball more than 3 seconds. Size of the ball and the basket is smaller than basketball. Netball is also no backboard. The Player shall be formed in certain positions in the Court. There are certain parts in court that are not allowed entered into by certain players.
          A Netball court measures 30.5m long by 15.25m wide (as compared to a regulation NBA basketball court).Netball posts are the same height as Basketball posts (3.048m), however the goal ring is smaller in diameter.
           Netball game is played in four quarters, each lasting fifteen minutes. There are intervals of three minutes between the first and second quarters and between the third and fourth quarters, and an interval of five minutes at half time. If an umpire or player calls time, the time keeper paused the timer. When play resumes, the timer is restarted. A maximum of two minutes is allowed for an injury.

2.2  Keys of Motor Skill Performance
            Sport skills are voluntary, coordinated tasks with sport-specific goals.  Basic movement skills is the first step toward learning sport-specific skills for an athletic performance. Understand the basic of movements will help to get good training decisions for proficiency as well as for fitness, strength and conditioning.
             There a few skills that involved in netball. There are open skills, externally passed skills, gross skills, interactive skills and also discrete skills. All of these skill help to improve the netball games and also a skill that required.
            The first skill is the open skill. Open skills is a skill that when the environment is constantly changing and so movements have to be continually adapted. Skills are predominantly perceptual and externally paced. For example, sometimes netball are playing at open field but sometimes play in closed place likes in hall.
            The second skills is the externally paced skill this may include opponents, controls the rate of performing the skill. In this skills the performer should pay attention to external events in order to control the rate of movement. For example centre want to pass the ball to goal attack with obstruction of an opponent, so that centre must take an action to make sure the ball is able to goal attack.
            The next skill is the gross skill, involve large muscle movements which are not very precise and include many fundamental movement patterns such as walking, running and jumping. In netball there are lots of this skills used. The player need many stamina tu make sure their performance not drop before the time is end. To make sure their performance are not drop, they must have enough training. They must do some endurance training, because in netball they not just use muscle.
         Besides that, interactive skill also one of the skills that include in netball. are those performed where other performers are directly involved. Then the last skills is the discrete skills. This skills are brief, well-defined actions that have a clear beginning and end. It make up the actions involved in a variety of sports such as hitting and throwing.

2.3  Roles of Biomechanics in Sport Performance
2.3.1 Passing
           Netball using a system of throws from one player to another appears to be a simple process requiring speed, accuracy and distance. However, in reality it is far from simple. The effectiveness of a player’s ability to successfully pass the ball is essential for the success of the team as a whole. There are several types of netball passing way that we can use as chest pass, the over arm shoulder pass, the double handed over head lob pass, the double handed over head lob pass and the bounce pass.

a.      Chest Pass

          Chest pass in netball all of the joints in our kinetic chain are required to simultaneously move in a single push-like movement pattern. The cumulated forces generated from each joint results in a high overall force and a straight-line movement at the end point in the chain which makes the movement highly accurate. Although the chest pass allows the ball to move at a higher force and more accurately, the push-like pattern of the pass has a slow movement speed, thus the speed of the pass movement is restricted by the shortening of our muscles. However, stepping forward as the pass is initiated contributes to forward velocity and increases the momentum in the upper body and arms. The use of two hands moving in a symmetrical forward direction provides the accuracy of the throw, and having the fingers spread helps to steer the direction of the chest pass. This is why chest passes are generally used to cover small distances. A chest pass is very efficient and one of the most commonly used movements in a netball game.

b.      The Over Arm Shoulder Pass

         Unlike the simultaneous movement in the push-like movement of the chest pass, this skill use a single arm shoulder pass requires the joints in the kinetic chain to extend sequentially.
An over arm throw movement begins in what is called the wind-up phase. During this phase the shoulder begins to extend and elbow is flexing by being drawn backwards. As the sequence continues there is a significant increase in the extension velocity of the hand and fingers, which results in a high ball release velocity. This flick movement of the wrist and fingers at the end of the over arm throw contributes to the speed at which the ball is released. The momentum is generated and transfered of production from larger muscle. The efficiency of the throw-like pattern for gaining distance is the result of using tissues that have the fastest shortening speeds, the tendons. A tendon has high kinetic energy and stores elastic potential energy, so when it is released it recoils very quickly with high speed. This is why the over arm throw is used to pass the netball over larger distances. Flattening the arc of the throw by rotating the hips improves the overall accuracy of the throw.

c.       The Double Handed Over Head Lob Pass

               This is one of the least commonly used passes within a netball context. This throw requires the arms to be lifted and extended to where the back is slightly arched and the elbows are bent allowing the ball to be placed just behind the head. An appropriate amount of force is then applied to offload through the tension in the back and arms, and concludes with a fast outward movement that comes from the thumbs and fingers. Players do not have to go forward to their throwing for the means used to generate power to drive the passes will be bigger, more direct and more accurate, because the base is wider stance improves stability of the players as they throw, and there will be some speed forward and momentum increases in the upper body and arms. While this pass are still using both hands to produce a burst of relatively straight forward directed, raised his hand to head height or above means that at the end point of the chain kinematics.

d.      Bounce Pass

            Pass the ball bounces in the net as well as some of the less commonly used. Pas bounce require flexion and extension arm and elbow with double lob throw hand. For example, player A exerts a force acts to the ball in a downward direction in which the ball was wearing at the time of the reaction force in the vertical direction is felt by a very small increase in pressure on the player's finger. Ball moving down before making contact with the court.  Court imposes a reaction force to the back to netball causing it to bounce up and into the hands of the player who receives it.

2.3.2 Shooting

a.      Shooting Action

          Forces will involve in shooting action. Forces can define as a push or pull (McGinnis, 1954) or anything that causes or has potential to cause movement. Forces can be described as internal (act within the object or system whose motion is being investigated) or external (act on an object as a result of its interaction with the environment). For Example muscles and bones are regard as inside the system therefore, are internal forces, any forces applied outside the body e.g. gravity, contact with the ground or another person and friction are all external forces. The motion we are curious about is the force directed upon the ball as it travels to the goal ring. The tendency for an object to remain in its present state is called inertia, often referred to as Newtons Law of Inertia. This law states the acceleration of an object is proportional to the net force acting on it and inversely proportional to the mass of the object. This means that if we want to change the motion of an object, we need to apply a force. All forces have four common properties. Firstly is magnitude such as the amount of force. Secondly, Direction that mean the angle at which the force is applied. Thirdly, a point of application of specific point at which the force is applied. Lastly, a line of action that represented by a straight line through the point of application in the direction that the force is acting.
           As a goal shooter in netball, we propel the ball through legs, trunk, shoulders, arms, and wrist.  Many shooters bent their knees during the sinking action of the shot.  Flexing or sinking at the knees is required to ensure adequate force could be created during the extension phase of the shooting action to propel the ball to the goal ring. To gain a more accurate shot for goal, many shooters tend to flex their forearm at the elbow. Shooter should extend the shooting hand only as far as necessary to stabilise the ball in preparation to shoot. Try to evade unnecessary hyperextension of the hand at the wrist.  Skilled shooters extend the knees and shooting elbow and flexed hand at wrist in the same motion. This simultaneous motion is used to attain utmost accuracy rather than maximum velocity (speed) for the shot. Additionally there is no single or optimal target for skilled shooters to focus on when preparing to shoot.   Where a shooter focuses upon when preparing to shoot is one of personal preference.
a.       Balance And Stability
           All humans and objects have a centre of gravity.  The point around which all the particles of the body are evenly distributed, and therefore the point at which we could place a single weight vector is the body’s centre of gravity.  Centre of gravity cannot be easy to find the exact centre of gravity on a human, especially in sport. Excessive trunk movement during the shooting action could hinder with stability and body balance. Therefore, there is minimal movement of the truck and arm movement (Steele, 1993). Having a solid structure for balance and stability will allow for optimal performance to execute an accurate shot at goal. 
b.      Ball Release
           The ball release is an important concept when performing a shot for goal. The trunk of the body is straight and an upright head position is maintained.  Skilled shooters release the ball with arm extended, but not to the position of being rigid or unbendable. The release point of the ball is directly above the head. This is evident is accurate shooters. When a defender is present the angle of release will change if the defenders hands are close hence an interception or tip may be achieved. A high release of the ball was recognized as beneficial which saw the ball release from the hands higher, also shortening the pathway the ball travelling to reach the goal ring. Release height can be influenced and improved by extension at the knees and at the elbow of the shooting arm.
c.       Distance From The Post
           Distance is also another factor that will impact on a netball shoot. The distance increased from the goal post accuracy decreased on the netball shot. The optimum distance for goal scoring was between 0.9m to 1.5m from the post.  When the shooting range or distance has increased, shooters will require a change in the mechanics of the shooting action. For example shooting 4-5 metres out from the goal post will require and that will influence the accuracy of the netball shot:
-an increase in force produce on the object.
- Then projectile angle increased, height will be increased.
-Increased speed of motion on the ball
-Deeper flexion of knees and elbows to produce a greater  force
d.      Netball Shot In Sequence
          This is how to measure netball shot in sequence. There are ways to use such centre of gravity is centre to mass. The person must have balanced and stability. Then the person should flexing the elbow as ball it placed behind head. Flexion of the knees is also contributed to produce a force on the ball. Flexion of both knees and elbow in same motion can make a good shooting.

2.4  Roles of Sport Pedagogy in Sport Performance

           Sport pedagogy is one of the most important aspect in sport education/ physical education. Researchers always try to develop new and better way to raise the teaching. For learning process in sports must have types of motor skills such as gross, fine, open, closed, complex and simple.
           For netball sport have motor skill of fine. Fine motor skill is coordinate precise, small movements involving the hands, wrist, feet, toes, lips or tongue. Example, someone have fine motor skill, a player finger can hold the ball with safely. Next motor skills is open. Open motor skill is involve the influence of the environment. Example, someone have open motor skill, they can do decision making to pass in netball. Moreover, motor skills that involve in Netball it is simple. Simple motor skill is where the performers have little information to process and few decisions to make, as well as small subroutines in which the speed and timing would not be crucial. Example, someone have simple motor skill a player can involve in Netball easily.

              Learning how to play netball will interesting and exciting especially when you increased strength and mobility allows you to make outstanding plays seem effortless. However, the training are very important to make sure the performance maintain at top level. The kinesiology movement that involve in netball are to ensure the skill of netball can do perfect with training.
               The principles of kinesiology as a professional in the field of coaching, athlete training or any other profession by analysing human movement and making appropriate recommendations. Kinesiology goes over almost every aspect of the physiology behind humans. Kinesiology is not studied merely to incite our interest in a fascinating and mysterious subject. The study of kinesiology is an essential part of the educational experience of students of physical education, dance, sport, and physical medicine. Knowledge of kinesiology has a threefold purpose for practitioners in any of these fields. It should enable them to help their students or clients.


Start everyday with a new hope, leave bad memories behind and always have faith for a better tomorrow.